• Drago Cvijanović University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Hotel Managament and Tourism in Vrnjačka Banja, Serbia
  • Tamara Gajić Novi Sad Business School, Novi Sad, Serbia; South Ural State University, Institute of Sports, Tourism and Service, Chelyabinsk, Russia
Keywords: fear, Covid-19, money, travel decision


The American National Institute of Mental Health announced that 10% of the total adult population has some kind of phobia. With the appearance of the COVID - 19 infection, and the huge consequences it left behind, there is a growing fear of people deciding to travel. There is a growing fear of infection after a year, but also a fear of lack of money, at a time when protection measures have destroyed tourism and hospitality. About 6,000 experts, including many scientists from the UK, say Covid measures are physically and mentally harmful to health, as well as to the social environment and the economy. The authors of the paper conducted an online research on the degree of strength of two types of fear that potentially influence the decision to travel. The research was conducted during 2020, on a total sample of 250 respondents. Confirming the reliability of the questionnaire, the obtained results were processed in the software SPSS, 23.00. Descriptive statistical analysis, and multiple regression analysis, confirmed the hypothesis that fears are present in all respondents, and that both types of fears are important in predicting and making travel decisions.


Download data is not yet available.


Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: development and initial validation. International journal of mental health and addiction, Vol. 27, 1–9.

Aydın, E. (2020). Effect of Perfectionism, Social Competence and Psychological Well-Being on Physical Activity of Students. African Educational Research Journal, Vol. 8, No. 1, 90–95.

Banerjee, D. (2020). The other side of COVID-19: impact on obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and hoarding. Psychiatry research, Vol. 288, 112966.

Berking, M., Neacsiu, A., Comtois, K. A., Linehan, M. M. (2009). The impact of experiential avoidance on the reduction of depression in treatment for borderline personality disorder. Behaviour research and therapy, Vol. 47, No. 8, 663–670.

Bond, F. W., Hayes, S. C., Barnes-Holmes, D. (2006). Psychological flexibility, ACT, and organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, Vol. 26, 25–54.

Brooks, S. K., Amlôt, R., Rubin, G. J., Greenberg, N. (2020a). Psychological resilience and post-traumatic growth in disaster-exposed organisations: overview of the literature, BMJ military health,, Vol. 166, No. 1, 52–56.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., et al. (2020b). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence, Lancet, Vol. 395, No. 10227, 912–920.

Cvijanović, D., Gajić, T., (2020a). Analisys of the Market Values of Lemeska Spa: Importance and Possibility of Renewal Throughthe Cluster System. Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Terms of The Republic of Serbia Strategic Goals Realization Within the Danube Region - Science and practice in the service of agriculture – Thematic Proceedings. Institute of Agricultural Economics Belgrade. 177-193.

Cvijanović, D., Gajić, T., (2020b). Rural Resource as a Tourist Attractor. V Medjunarodni skup Turizam u funkciji ruralnog razvoja Republike Srbije, 4-6 jun, Vrnjacka Banja.

Cribb, G., Moulds, M. L., Carter, S. (2006). Rumination and experiential avoidance in depression, Behaviour Change, Vol. 23, No. 3, 165–176.

Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (2000). The "what" and "why" of goal pursuits: human needs and the self-determination of behavior, Psychological inquiry, Vol. 11, No. 4, 227–268.

Doğan, T. (2015). Kısa psikolojik sağlamlık ölçeği’nin Türkçe uyarlaması: Geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışması. The Journal of Happiness & Well-Being, Vol. 3, No. 1, 93-102.

Ekşi, H., Kaya, Ç, Kuşcu, B. (2018). Multıdımensıonal experiential avoıdance questıonnaıre-30: adaptatıon and psychometrıc propertıes of the Turkısh versıon, Annual Congress: ICRE. 483–487.

Gajić, T., Petrović, M.D., Radovanović, M., Tretiakova, T.N., Syromiatnikov, J.A. (2020). Possibilities of Turning Passive Rural Areas into Tourist Attractions Through Attained Service Quality. European Countryside Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, 179-276.

Gajić, T., Vujko, A., Tretiakova, T.N., Petrovic, D.M., Radovanovic, M., Vukovic, D. (2019). Evaluation of Service Quality Based on Rural Households Visitors – Serbian Case Study. The Central European Journal of Regional Development and Toursm, Vol. 11, No. 2, 4-20.

Gajić, T., Penić, M., Vujko, A.,Petrović, M.D., (2018a). Development Perspectives of Rural Tourism Policy – Comparative Study of Rural Tourism Competitiveness Based on Perceptions of Tourism Workers in Slovenia and Serbia, Eastern European Countryside, Vol. 24, No. 1, 144-154.

Gajić,T., Vujko, A., Petrović, M.D., Mrkša, M., Penić, M. (2018b). Examination of regional disparity in the level of tourist offer in rural clusters of Serbia. Economic of agriculture, Vol.65, No. 3, 911-929.

Gajić,T., Vujko, A., Penić, M., Petrović, M. Mrkša, M. (2017): Significant involvement of agricultural holdings in rural tourism development in Serbia. Economic of agriculture, Vol. 64, No. 3, 901-919.

Garcia, R. (2017). Neurobiology of fear and specific phobias. Learning & Memory. Vol. 24, No. 9, 462–471.

Greenberg, N., Docherty, M., Gnanapragasam, S., Wessely, S. (2020). Managing mental health challenges faced by healthcare workers during covid-19 pandemic. BMJ.

Kashdan, T. B., Rottenberg, J. (2010). Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health. Clinical psychology review, Vol. 30, No. 7, 865–878.

Machell, K. A., Goodman, F. R., Kashdan, T. B. (2015). Experiential avoidance and well-being: A daily diary analysis. Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 29, No. 2, 351-359.

Mahaffey, B. L., Wheaton, M. G., Fabricant, L. E., Berman, N. C., Abramowitz, J. S. (2013). The contribution of experiential avoidance and social cognitions in the prediction of social anxiety, Behavioural and cognitive psychotherapy, Vol. 41, No. 1, 52–65.

Orcutt, H. K., Pickett, S., Pope, E. (2005). Experiential avoidance and forgiveness as mediators in the relation between traumatic life events and PTSD symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 24, No. 7, 1003–1029.

Ornell, F., Schuch, J. B., Sordi, A. O., Kessler, F. H. P. (2020). "Pandemic fear" and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 42, No. 3, 232–235.

Park, S. C., Park, Y. C. (2020). Mental health care measures in response to the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Korea. Psychiatry investigation, Vol. 17, No. 2, 85–86.

Peardon, S. (2015). Ebola’s mental-health wounds linger in Africa, Nature News, Vol. 519, No. 7541, 13–15.

Rüsch, N., Schiel, S., Corrigan, P. W., Leihener, F., Jacob, G. A., Olschewski, M. (2008). Predictors of dropout from inpatient dialectical behavior therpay among women with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, Vol. 39, No. 4, 497–503.

Satici, B., Gocet-Tekin, E., Deniz, M. E., Satici, S. A. (2020). Adaptation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale: its association with psychological distress and life satisfaction in Turkey. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1–9.

Seçer, İ, Ulaş, S. (2020). An Investigation of the Effect of COVID-19 on OCD in Youth in the Context of Emotional Reactivity, Experiential Avoidance, Depression and Anxiety. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, Vol. 13, 1–14.

Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019‐nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, Vol. 74, No. 4, 281-282.

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X., Tan, Y., Xu, L., Ho, C. S., Ho, R. C. (2020). Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International journal of environmental research and public health, Vol. 17, No. 5, 1729.

Xiang, Y. T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., Ng, C. H. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, Vol. 7, No. 3, 228- 229.

Yilmaz, O., Boz, H., Arslan, A. (2017). The validity and reliability of depression stress and anxiety scale (DASS 21) Turkish short form. Research of Financial Economic and Social Studies, Vol. 2, No. 2, 78-91.

How to Cite
Cvijanović, D., & Gajić, T. (2021). THE INFLUENCE OF FEARS ON THE TRAVEL DECISION - COVID FEAR AGAINST MONEY FEAR. Tourism International Scientific Conference Vrnjačka Banja - TISC, 6(1), 232-246.